Table 1 Viral infection associations with PD
Viral infectionRelation to PDStudy
HSV↑ incidence (HSV-I)[49–51,55]
  -Enveloped, linear dsDNA genome (152–154 kb)↑ incidence[53]
  -Causes blistering of mouth/genitals, latency in neurones↑ incidence (HSV-I)[54]
No association[52]
Influenza virus A↑ incidence[53]
  -Enveloped, linear ssRNA(–) genome (13.5 kb)↑ incidence[52]
  -Causes fever, cough, runny nose, malaiseNo association[49]
Measles virus↓ incidence[52]
  -Enveloped, linear ssRNA(–) genome (15–16 kb)No association[53]
  -Causes rash, white spots, cough, red eyesNo association[55]
Cytomegalovirus↓ incidence[52]
  -Enveloped, linear dsDNA genome (~200 kb)No association[51]
  -May cause mononucleosis, pnuemoniaNo association[54]
CoronavirusNo association[56]
  -Enveloped, linear ssRNA(+) genome (27–32 kb)
  -Causes upper/lower respiratory infection, sometimes gastroenteritis
Mumps↑ incidence[53]
  -Enveloped, linear ssRNA(–) genome (15 kb)
  -Causes parotid gland swelling, malaise